0%

Code Refactoring of Bob - Exercism in Rust

Introduction

This comes from the side exercise of exercism in rust.

Mentor gaetanww helped me a lot on code refactoring and logical improvements advice with great patience and careful instruction. He even changed my attitude towards work and researching. I have nothing else to say to express my thanks to my mentor.

So I decide to record the whole process of code improvements and advice from gaetanww.

I am pretty sure that you could gain lessons from this post as well.

Exercise Introduction:

Instructions

Bob is a lackadaisical teenager. In conversation, his responses are very limited.

Bob answers ‘Sure.’ if you ask him a question, such as “How are you?”.

He answers ‘Whoa, chill out!’ if you YELL AT HIM (in all capitals).

He answers ‘Calm down, I know what I’m doing!’ if you yell a question at him.

He says ‘Fine. Be that way!’ if you address him without actually saying anything.

He answers ‘Whatever.’ to anything else.

Bob’s conversational partner is a purist when it comes to written communication and always follows normal rules regarding sentence punctuation in English.

Test suite

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
use bob;

fn process_response_case(phrase: &str, expected_response: &str) {
assert_eq!(bob::reply(phrase), expected_response);
}

#[test]
fn test_stating_something() {
process_response_case("Tom-ay-to, tom-aaaah-to.", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_shouting() {
process_response_case("WATCH OUT!", "Whoa, chill out!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_shouting_gibberish() {
process_response_case("FCECDFCAAB", "Whoa, chill out!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_asking_a_question() {
process_response_case("Does this cryogenic chamber make me look fat?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_asking_a_numeric_question() {
process_response_case("You are, what, like 15?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_asking_gibberish() {
process_response_case("fffbbcbeab?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_talking_forcefully() {
process_response_case("Let's go make out behind the gym!", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_using_acronyms_in_regular_speech() {
process_response_case("It's OK if you don't want to go to the DMV.", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_forceful_question() {
process_response_case(
"WHAT THE HELL WERE YOU THINKING?",
"Calm down, I know what I'm doing!",
);
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_shouting_numbers() {
process_response_case("1, 2, 3 GO!", "Whoa, chill out!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_no_letters() {
process_response_case("1, 2, 3", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_question_with_no_letters() {
process_response_case("4?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_shouting_with_special_characters() {
process_response_case(
"ZOMG THE %^*@#$(*^ ZOMBIES ARE COMING!!11!!1!",
"Whoa, chill out!",
);
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_shouting_with_no_exclamation_mark() {
process_response_case("I HATE THE DMV", "Whoa, chill out!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_statement_containing_question_mark() {
process_response_case("Ending with ? means a question.", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_nonletters_with_question() {
process_response_case(":) ?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_prattling_on() {
process_response_case("Wait! Hang on. Are you going to be OK?", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_silence() {
process_response_case("", "Fine. Be that way!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_prolonged_silence() {
process_response_case(" ", "Fine. Be that way!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_alternate_silence() {
process_response_case("\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t", "Fine. Be that way!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_multiple_line_question() {
process_response_case(
"\nDoes this cryogenic chamber make me look fat?\nNo.",
"Whatever.",
);
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_starting_with_whitespace() {
process_response_case(" hmmmmmmm...", "Whatever.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_ending_with_whitespace() {
process_response_case("Okay if like my spacebar quite a bit? ", "Sure.");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_other_whitespace() {
process_response_case("\n\r \t", "Fine. Be that way!");
}

#[test]
#[ignore]
fn test_nonquestion_ending_with_whitespace() {
process_response_case(
"This is a statement ending with whitespace ",
"Whatever.",
);
}

Solution

Version 1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
if is_all_capitalized(message) && have_letters(message) {
if message.chars().nth(message.len() - 1) == Some('?') {
return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!";
}
return "Whoa, chill out!";
}

if have_letters(message) {
if message.trim().chars().nth(message.trim().len() - 1) == Some('?') {
return "Sure.";
}
return "Whatever.";
}
if have_nothing(message) {
return "Fine. Be that way!";
}
if message.chars().nth(message.len() - 1) == Some('?') {
return "Sure.";
}
return "Whatever.";
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
for i in 0..message.len() {
let f = message.chars().nth(i);
if f >= Some('a') && f <= Some('z') {
return false;
}
}
true
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
for i in 0..message.len() {
let f = message.chars().nth(i);
if f >= Some('a') && f <= Some('z') || f >= Some('A') && f <= Some('Z') {
return true;
}
}
false
}

fn have_nothing(message: &str) -> bool {
if !have_letters(message) {
for i in 0..message.len() {
let f = message.chars().nth(i);
if f != Some(' ') && f != Some('\n') && f != Some('\t') && f != Some('\r') {
return false;
}
}
}
true
}

Comments on Version 1

  • Check out using match instead of if. For some things, like destructuring, it’s required. It’s an idiom specific to Rust, so I always default to it unless the logic is comparing many different things and a match, in that case, makes it messy.

  • Have a look at .ends_with() to check if it’s a question, it expresses your intent better.

  • at line 48 you wrote:

    1
    if f != Some(' ') && f != Some('\n') && f != Some('\t') && f != Some('\r')

    The method .trim() gets rid of all these characters for you :)

  • We don’t necessarily need to create separate functions here. We can put this all in one by setting these calls to variables instead (check iterator methods, like .any() etc.)

  • Your function is_all_capitalized() does not handle non-ASCII characters.

Version 2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
if message.trim().ends_with("?") {
match is_all_capitalized(message.trim()) {
true => if have_letters(message.trim()) {
return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!";
} else {
return "Sure.";
},
false => return "Sure.",
}
}
match message.trim().len() <= 0 {
true => return "Fine. Be that way!",
_ => {}
}
match is_all_capitalized(message.trim()) {
true => {
if have_letters(message.trim()) {
return "Whoa, chill out!";
}
}
_ => {}
}
"Whatever."
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
for ch in message.chars() {
match ch {
'a'..='z' => return false,
_ => {}
}
}
true
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
for i in 0..message.len() {
let f = message.chars().nth(i);
if f >= Some('a') && f <= Some('z') || f >= Some('A') && f <= Some('Z') {
return true;
}
}
false
}

Comments on Version2

  • One of the main goals of exercism is to teach ‘fluency’ in a programming language. One of the aspects of fluency in Rust is finding information easily in the standard library and third-party libraries, there is often a way to do things more shortly, correctly and efficiently.

    For example, you can replace some of your functions by methods on characters (.is_alphabetic(), .is_uppercase) or iterators and strings (.is_empty() instead of string.len() == 0). May I suggest you look up these functions and see if it would help you? It might also bring some edge-cases that you haven’t considered (Is Ü uppercase and/or alphabetic? ).

    • My answer: Ü is uppercase and is not alphabetic.

Version 3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
if message.trim().ends_with("?") {
match is_all_capitalized(message.trim()) {
true => if have_letters(message.trim()) {
return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!";
} else {
return "Sure.";
},
false => return "Sure.",
}
}
match message.trim().is_empty() {
true => return "Fine. Be that way!",
_ => {}
}
match is_all_capitalized(message.trim()) {
true => {
if have_letters(message.trim()) {
return "Whoa, chill out!";
}
}
_ => {}
}
"Whatever."
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
for ch in message.chars() {
match ch.is_uppercase() {
false => {
if ch.is_ascii_alphabetic() {
return false;
}
}
_ => {
println!("{}: {}", ch, ch.is_uppercase());
}
}
}
true
}
fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
for ch in message.chars() {
match ch.is_ascii_alphabetic() {
true => return true,
_ => {}
}
}
false
}

Comments on Version 3

  • You recompute message.trim() several times (at line 2, 12, 16 and 18), it could be better to store it in a variable like:

    1
    2
    3
    let trimmed_message = message.trim();
    or even
    let message = message.trim();

    This is probably going to get optimized by the compiler, but it would at least make your program a bit shorter.

  • In the functions is_all_capitalized and have_letters you use an iterator (message.chars()) match on the elements to verify some properties on them. You can rewrite those two functions with only iterators methods, would you like to try it?

    It would look a bit like that:

    1
    let is_all_capitalized = message.chars().method1(...);

    If you’re stuck, have a look at the any() and all() methods.

Version 4

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
let message = message.trim();
if message.ends_with("?") {
match is_all_capitalized(message) {
true => if have_letters(message) {
return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!";
} else {
return "Sure.";
},
false => return "Sure.",
}
}
match message.is_empty() {
true => return "Fine. Be that way!",
_ => {}
}
match is_all_capitalized(message) {
true => {
if have_letters(message) {
return "Whoa, chill out!";
}
}
_ => {}
}
"Whatever."
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
!message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic() && x.is_lowercase())
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

Comments on Version4

  • You can use match statements on tuples. For example:

    1
    2
    3
    4
    match (condition1, condition2) {
    (_, true) => ...,
    (true, false) => ...,
    }

    Can you use that to make your code more straightforward?

Version 5

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
let message = message.trim();
if message.ends_with("?") {
match (is_all_capitalized(message), have_letters(message)) {
(true, true) => return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!",
(true, false) => return "Sure.",
(false, _) => return "Sure.",
}
}
match message.is_empty() {
true => return "Fine. Be that way!",
_ => {}
}
match (is_all_capitalized(message), have_letters(message)) {
(true, true) => return "Whoa, chill out!",
(_, _) => {}
}
"Whatever."
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
!message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic() && x.is_lowercase())
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

Comments on Version 5

  • We don’t tend to use lots of return statements, so if you have a lot of them you might be able to iprove your code. The reason why wer don’t use them so much is that it makes the control flow of your program more difficult to read.
    For example, in that exercise, you can get rid of all the return statements and have only one big match. Try and find how to do it :)

  • One way you can move forward with this exercise is to store boolean results in variable: for example:

    1
    2
    3
    let is_empty = message.is_empty();
    let is_question = message.ends_with("?");
    let is_all_capitalized = etc...

    Hopefully this will clear things up for the match statement.

Version 6

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
let message = message.trim();
let is_empty = message.is_empty();
let is_question = message.ends_with("?");
let is_all_capitalized = is_all_capitalized(message);
let is_having_letters = have_letters(message);

match is_question {
true => {
match (is_all_capitalized, is_having_letters) {
(true, true) => return "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!",
(true, false) => return "Sure.",
(false, _) => return "Sure.",
}
}
false => {
match is_empty {
true => return "Fine. Be that way!",
false => match (is_all_capitalized, is_having_letters) {
(true, true) => return "Whoa, chill out!",
(_, _) => {}
}
}
}
}

"Whatever."
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().all(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic() && x.is_uppercase() || !x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

Comments on Version 6

  • Rust has other paradigms that are fun and interesting to explore. One of them is that Rust is an expression-oriented language where all statements return a value, and that’s why you don’t necessarily need a return to return a value from a function. You’ll see that if you avoid using it (when it makes sense to, returning early is a valid use case for using return) it will compose very well with other bits of rust code.

As for your code, if you want to get rid of te return statements, try:

1
match(is_question, is_question, is_having_letters, etc.) {...}
  • I think you can simplify the problem to have two or three variables in the match statements.

    Consider matching with:

    1
    2
    let is_yelled = is_all_capitalized && is_having_letters;
    match (is_empty, is_question, is_yelled) {...}

    Or even:

    1
    2
    3
    4
    if message.is_empty() {
    return "Fine. Be that way!";
    }
    match (is_question, is_yelled) {...}
  • Your code can be refactored. Please see:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
if message.is_empty() {
return "Fine. Be that way!";
}

match (is_question, is_yelled) {
(true, true) => "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!",
(true, false) => "Sure.",
(false, true) => "Whoa, chill out!",
(false, false) => "Whatever."
}

Version 7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
pub fn reply(message: &str) -> &str {
let message = message.trim();
let is_question = message.ends_with("?");
let is_yelled = is_all_capitalized(message) && have_letters(message);

if message.is_empty() {
return "Fine. Be that way!";
}
match (is_question, is_yelled) {
(true, true) => "Calm down, I know what I'm doing!",
(true, false) => "Sure.",
(false, true) => "Whoa, chill out!",
(false, false) => "Whatever.",
}
}

fn is_all_capitalized(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().all(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic() && x.is_uppercase() || !x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

fn have_letters(message: &str) -> bool {
message.chars().any(|x| x.is_ascii_alphabetic())
}

Comments on Version 7

  • Well done!

End